Army units from Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Iraq invaded the next day, but fared poorly. To explain the rapid contraction of the British Empire in the middle of the twentieth century in the aftermath of World War II, historians often note that postwar Britain lacked the economic strength and willpower to maintain its far-flung colonies, particularly in the face of mounting anticolonial nationalism. After 1922 Egypt gained a parliament, while its dynastic ruler, a descendant of the Ottoman governor Muhammad Ali, was declared king. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. Hoping to raise the needed funds, the Egyptian government sold its 44 percent stake in the Suez Canal Company to the British government, to no avail. Accumulated literary and artistic representations of the exotic, despotic East, retrograde and debauched, also provided the foil against which late nineteenth-century British writers constructed an image of the British national and imperial character as rational, modern, moral, and strong. This policy led to the creation of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty, which endured in Egypt until 1952. In short, the same forces in the global economy that had been working to Europe's advantage since the sixteenth century now began to work to the detriment of both the Ottoman Empire and Qajar Iran, which lacked the wherewithal and internal coherence to stave off military, territorial, and economic challenges to their sovereignty. British businesses accounted for at least half of Iran's foreign trade by the mid-nineteenth century, exchanging manufactured goods and textiles for Iranian carpets, silk, and other raw agricultural materials. Another highly significant post-World War I settlement was the Treaty of Sèvres, signed by the Ottoman government in August 1920. Historians date the beginning of British imperialism in the Middle East to 1798, the year Napoléon invaded Egypt. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Iran suffered under the burdens of wartime requisitioning and in 1918–1919 faced a massive famine that killed as much as one quarter of the population. (In 1932 Britain granted Iraq a form of official, yet nominal independence: it was nominal because Britain reserved control over Iraq's military and communications and retained a major share in Iraq's burgeoning oil industry.) London: Longman, 1996. The third objective was related to what nineteenth-century observe… Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450. . Britain never fulfilled its wartime promises to Sharif Husayn of Mecca in their entirety but made three gestures toward the Hashimites. A. to gain an upper hand over the United States B. to export oil from Britain to the Middle East C. to control the region’s rich oil reserves D. to import agricultural products such as cotton By 1939 two trends were evident: first, that Arab resistance to Zionist immigration had reached the boiling point, and second, that Hitler's virulent anti-Semitism was proving the desperate need for a Jewish haven. from the far corners of the empire) went on to fight important engagements in the Dardanelles (the ill-fated Gallipoli campaign), Mesopotamia (in the region corresponding to what is now southern and central Iraq), and the Suez Canal zone and Greater Syria (culminating in the British entry into Jerusalem in December 1917). Britain's heavy-handed intervention in Iranian affairs and its control over Iranian oil resources increasingly rankled educated elites, and contributed, by the late 1930s, to a degree of pro-German sentiment in the country. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. In 1936 the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty gave Egypt a greater degree of autonomy—for example, by providing for a phased abolition of the capitulatory privileges that foreigners had enjoyed in Egypt. British troops (including many soldiers recruited 5th ed. 2nd rev. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. Correct answers: 3 question: Select the correct answer. The Commonwealth Games in Glasgow this year welcomed former British colonies, but absent were those Middle Eastern states where Britain had exercised imperial soft power in the twentieth century. The ultimate goal behind the first two objectives was to secure and protect sea and land routes to India, which was becoming increasingly vital both to Britain's economy and to its imperial psyche. Taking over a group of sovereign states (like the Middle East) wouldn't be colonization, it would be occupation. A Revolutionary Year: The Middle East in 1958. 1, edited by John L. Esposito, 257-260. New York: St. Martin's, 1961. The Emergence of Modern Turkey. During World War I, British authorities engaged in a series of behind-the-scenes negotiations that ultimately transformed the political destinies of Middle Eastern people. Why did European nations such as Britain colonize countries in the Middle East in the beginning of the twentieth century? Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Forgive the Pollyannaishness, but I don't understand why either nation would want to do what they did. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1984–1985. Husayn did not retain power for long, however, as in 1924 the Wahhabist forces of 'Abd al'Aziz Ibn Saqud overran the region and seized control, forcing him to flee into exile. At the end of the eighteenth century, British trade in the eastern Mediterranean lands of the Ottoman Empire (the Levant region) accounted for a mere 1 percent of total British foreign trade. Dominating the Middle East would have guaranteed regular resistance and necessitated garrisoning of every major city. Empire Building: Orientalism and Victorian Architecture. The third objective was related to what nineteenth-century observers called the Eastern Question—that is, the challenge of preserving the Ottoman Empire in order to avoid inflaming both competition between the Great Powers and the generally contentious atmosphere created by Western imperial expansion. Colonization as a concept has been superseded since the 20th century by the concept of state sovereignty. Along with Russia and France especially, Britain was one of the new "Great Powers" that began to assert itself in the Middle East as the nineteenth century began. With Mussolini's Italy in control of Libya, on Egypt's western flank, Britain faced up to the possibility of a German and Italian invasion within North Africa. What methods did Europeans use to colonize and maintain power and authority in this area? In the next decade, Britain responded to the increasingly tense situation on the ground by issuing white papers, or policy statements, that affirmed the need to address the concerns of both Palestine's Arab and Jewish inhabitants and that suggested possible limits on Zionist immigration. At the San Remo Conference in 1920, Britain and France ensured the essential implementation of the wartime Sykes-Picot Agreement. Religion versus Empire? The Treaty of Sèvres delivered the final blow to the Ottoman Empire. Yapp, Malcolm. Quataert, Donald. Manchester, U.K.: Manchester University Press, 2004. In 1961 the historians Ronald Robinson and John Gallagher famously argued that the British occupation of Egypt in 1882 was the trigger for the "Scramble for Africa." Owen, Roger. Smith, Simon C. Britain's Revival and Fall in the Gulf: Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and the Trucial States, 1950–71. 2: Modern Egypt. Lewis, Bernard. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 1989. I mmediately following the end of World War II…, British Association for the Advancement of Science, British Columbia Institute of Technology: Narrative Description, British Columbia Institute of Technology: Tabular Data, British Imperial System of weights and measures, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/british-colonialism-middle-east, Britain and the Middle East from 1914 to the Present, Independence and Decolonization, Middle East. New York: Columbia University Press, 1982. The ultimate goal behind the first two objectives was to secure and protect sea and land routes to India, which was becoming increasingly vital both to Britain's economy and to its imperial psyche. Meanwhile, with Russia internally distracted after its 1917 communist revolution, Britain moved to confirm its postwar position in Iran, which remained subject to quasi-colonial control. This situation meant that Iran's strategic value now lay not only in its proximity to India and its position along the Persian Gulf, but also in its importance as an oil supplier and naval refueling site. His efforts led to the Arab Revolt, headed by his son, Faisal, which began in 1916 and culminated with the capture of Damascus from the Ottomans in 1918. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. Competition with the other growing European imperial powers also prompted Britain's closer involvement in the Ottoman Empire, which British sources of the time portrayed as a "Sick Man of Europe" that needed to be propped up. At the same time, Iran, newly consolidated under the Qajar dynasty (r. 1796–1925), was proving vulnerable to Russian expansion. The United States' creeping involvement in the Middle East began later, during the Truman administration, and continued through the 21st century. Third, Britain recognized Sharif Husayn himself as ruler of a Hashimite kingdom of the Hijaz (western Arabia). An Economic History of the Middle East and North Africa. 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